Surveillance of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Rabies in 2004
Shu-Hwae LEE, Kwok-Rong TSAI, Kuo-Hui CHANG, Jen-Chieh CHANG, Che-tun HUNG, Lu-Jen TING , Wastson H. T. SUNG
Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan
We have applied histopathology, immunohistochemistry, Western immunoblot assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques in the continuous surveillance program of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Among the 859 cattle brains, 826 brains were collected randomly from the abattoirs, 3 from the M. tuberculosis-contaminated farms, 6 from the sick cows imported from Canada, 1 from the bovine ephemeral fever virus infected cattle and 23 from the culling old cattle in Taiwan in 2004. Cattle developed central nervous signs or showed other symptoms were also included. All of the brains were negative. Additionally, histopathological observation and direct immunofluorescent antibody were also applied to examine 1 rabies-suspected case with nervous symptom and 79 brain tissues of stray dogs in 2004. Rabies viral antigens and typical lesion were not detected in all tissues indicating free status of rabies in Taiwan. On the other hand, 3,204 sera samples including 1,380 samples from domestic dogs and 1,821 samples from stray dogs were examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the sera-positive rate of domestic and stray dogs were 58.6% (809/1,380) and 35.9% (654/1,821), respectively.
Key words: TSE, rabies, surveillance
REPORT NO. AHRI report No38
Topic Surveillance On the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and rabies in Taiwan in 2002
Department Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan
Author LEE Shu-Hwae, Kou-Hei CHANG, Kwok-Rong TSAI, Lu-Jen TING, Jong-Rong SHIAU, Shih-Yuh LIN
We have established a fast and accurate screening technique based On immunopathology to detect bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from bovine and ovine brain tissues standard operation procedures for the screening of BSE and rabies were established too. By following these procedures, the risk of BSE from imported food and the spread and damage of BSE and rabies would be greatly reduced. A total of 647 cattle brains aged older than 30 months (4.2-year-old in average) were screened in 2002. Totally, 1,385 brain sections colleced from the abanoirs and M. tuberculosis contaminated farms scattered through 11 counties, including Taoyang, Taichung, Chunghwa, Yunling, Nantao, Tainan, Pingtung, Ilan, Taitung, Panfu, and Kingmen, were examined. None of those samples showed spongiform change in pathology. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Westem immunoblot assay were used to examine 647 cattle brains and 90 cattle brains collected since 1999 to 2002, also showing negative results in prion protein. These results would be submitted to the World Organisation for Animal Health to claim that Taiwan is a BSE free area. Fifty-Six canaine brains were also examined in histopathological sections and stained with direct immunofluorescent antibodies, showing negative results. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to detect the specific antibodies to rabies in 4,317 dog serum. samples. Among those serum samples, 1,946 samples were from domestic dogs and 2,371 were from stray dogs. Result revealed that 41.0% of domestic dogs and 21.4 % of stray dogs were positive in ELISA.
Keyword bovine spongiform encephalopathy; rabies; Surveillance; Taiwan
REPORT NO. AHRI report No36
TOPIC Surveillance on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Taiwan in 1998-2000
Department Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan
Author Lee, Shu-Hwae , Kou-Hei Chang, Min-Chao Weng, Jei-Fu Su and Shih-Yuh Lin
In order to fulfill the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) requirements for the statement of free area of bovine spongiforrn encephalopathy (BSE), 85 cattle brains were collected from the abattoirs, rendering plants and the cattle herds infected by M. tuberculosis located in 8 prefectures of Taiwan. Cattle developed CNS signs or showed other symptoms were also included. A total of 850 brain histologic tissue sections (10 sections/brain) were examined. None of the 850 brain tissue sections showed evidence related to spongiform change. Then, thirty out of the 85 brain tissue sections were examined further by the Western blot diagnostic kit. No evidence of prion was found. These results could therefore provide for OIE to recognize Taiwan as a free Country of BSE.
Keyword Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, M. tuberculosis, brain tissue sections
AHRI report No.37
Topic Establishment of the Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques and Monitormg of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Taiwan
Department Animal Health Research lnstitute, Council of Agriculture
Authur Kuo-Hui Chang*, Shu-Hwae Lee, Min-Chao Weng, Jei-Fu Su, Shih- Yuh, Lin
Summary To prevent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from entering our country, we have established the BSE laboratory diagnostic techniques, including the laboratory biosafety, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, Western immunoblot assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We have also applied those techniques to the continuous surveillance program of BSE. A total of 127 cattle brains were collected from the abattoirs, rendering plants, and M. tuberculosis-conaminated farms located in 10 counties of Taiwan during 1998 to 2001. Cattle developed central nerous signs or showed other symptoms were also included. All the brains were examined and present negative results.
Keywords bovine spongiform encephalopathy, mad cow disease, prion, laboratory diagnostic techniques
Pathological Diangosis and Services for Animal Diseases in Taiwan in 2002
Republic of Korea Livestock and Products Sem-Annual 2008 This article provides the cattle industry data from the USDA FAS Livestock and Products Semi-Annual 2008 report for the Republic of Korea. A link to the full report is also provided. The full report includes all the tabular data, which we have omitted from this article.
Annual and Semi
Report Highlights: Imports of beef are projected to remain stable in 2008 at 310,000 metric tons. Increases in domestic inventory will alleviate some of the unmet demand for animal protein. Lower international pork prices in the United States and increasinly lower tariffs for Chilean pork will make imported pork and pork products more price competitive this year. Total imports of pork are forecast at 452,000 tons, an increase of 2.5 percent from 2007. The domestic livestock industry is facing higher feed prices this year and will likely increase slaughter rates from those initially forecasted.
Situation and Outlook The political landscape in Korea is changing. On February 25, a new conservative president, Lee Myung-bak, was sworn into office after 10 years of liberal rule. During his campaign the new president made a “747” jumbo election pledge to revive Korea's economy by achieving seven percent annual growth, per-capita national income of $40,000 and making Korea the world’s seventh largest economy in 10 years. Currently, exports are still strong, but the world economy is slowing and Korea may begin to feel the effects in the second half of this year. Imports are forecast to rise considerably this year due to high oil, grain and raw material prices. As a result, the economic forecast for 2008 is expected to be just under five percent.
With a new president, comes a new government. The new Minister for Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF),, Jung Un-chun (also spelled Chung Woon-chun) has stated that “the country’s agriculture policy should no longer be passive and protective, but instead should be proactive and aggressive.” As a result, Jung’s nomination drew mixed reviews from rank-and-file farmers. The new Minister is likely to deal with the beef issue, while at the same time explore ways to provide additional debt relief to farmers in order to gain their support for the Korea-U.S. free trade agreement.
Imports of beef are projected to rema in stable in 2008; although the forecast was dropped slightly on account of higher slaughter rates. This increase in domestic production will result in a 5 percent increase in consumption compared to last year. The unmet demand for beef in Korea is quite high given that per capita consumption in 2007 (7.5 kg) is still below the 2003 level (8.1 kg) and well below the level in the United States (about 30.5 kg).
Increased swine slaughter in 2008 resulting in higher expected domestic production is the main reason that the forecast for pork imports was lowered. Imports of pork will increase year on year due to lower international prices. Increased U.S. swine production and the steady decline in tariff rates for Chilean pork will make imported pork more price competitive this year. The demand for pork, even though it is at record levels (19.7 kg), probably still has room for growth.
Domestic prices for live cattle and swine depend on slaughter rates. Higher prices for imported corn and soybeans, ingredients used locally in compound livestock feeds, will increase costs for the farmer. Judging by past history, farmers are likely to sell off their cattle at higher rates if their costs increase. Higher slaughter rates will result in lower live animal prices and lower wholesale prices for beef and pork; however, this does not necessarily translate into lower retail prices for the consumer. Retail prices tend to remain stable, changing only when external pressures force retailers to lower their prices. Absent U.S beef, the price of imported beef will increase as the higher costs of production in exporting countries are passed on to buyers.
Beef and Beef Products Production Inventory levels are expected to remain high regardless of whether or not U.S. beef returns to the market in 2008. Korea's total cow beginning stock levels in 2008 are five percent higher than those compared to this same time last year. High cow numbers will permit farmers to increase their herd sizes in 2008. In addition, 595,000 head of Hanwoo were artificially inseminated in the second half of 2007, an increase of 19.7 percent from the same period in 2006. With such high insemination rates and beginning stock levels, the total inventory is not expected to come down until at least 2009.
The conclusion of the KORUS FTA negotiations in early April 2007 and the brief resumption of U.S. beef imports that began in April 2007 after the bone chip issue was partially resolved had a huge impact on domestic beef prices. Live cow prices dropped over four percent from an average of 4,960,000 won (about $5,221, at an exchange rate of US$1=950 won) per head in April 2007 to 4,786,000 won (about $5,038) in May 2007, after the arrival of the first beef shipment on April 23, 2007. This decline continued until U.S. beef was shut off again on October 5, 2007. Since then, however, prices have begun to move upward again.
The price drop provoked farmers to sell off their stock and send cattle to slaughter. During the four month period (May-August) after U.S. beef imports resumed and prior to the Korean Thanksgiving Holidays (October), beef cattle slaughter jumped 6.7 percent in 2007 compared to the same period in 2006. The cow-steer slaughter ratio jumped to 45.9:54.1 during this four-month period, compared to 44.7:55.3 during the same period in 2006 and the 2006 annual average ratio of 43.3:56.7. Despite the short-term panic, Korea still maintains a very high level of Hanwoo inventory; however increased feed grain prices will have a direct effect on production costs and in the long run will cause less competitive farmers to stop producing cattle.
Korea was recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as being free from Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) in 2002. Korea has requested that other countries, including the United States recognize its OIE status.
Korea’s beef self-sufficiency ratio has increased from 36.1 percent in 2003 to 46.9 percent in 2007; however, this is not because of an increase in production but rather a drop in consumption. The high price of beef in Korea has resulted in decreased demand for all beef, domestic and imported. When U.S. beef enters the market, as seen in 2007, the effect is more competition, more choice and lower prices for consumers resulting in increased demand that may actually be beneficial to the domestic industry. Increased availability of beef does not replace current suppliers, it expands the whole market. There is a market for Hanwoo beef that will remain even if U.S. beef is present; but not all consumers can eat Hanwoo beef given the cost. After the market was liberalized in 2000, Hanwoo production did not go away and even in 2007, with some U.S. beef available, Hanwoo sales actually increased and production grew.
Source: U.S. Meat Export Federation/Korea and the National Agric ultural Cooperative Federation Consumption Beef consumption is projected to continue to increase in 2008 as it did in 2007 due to higher domestic production. Prices dropped slightly in 2007 due to the availability of U.S. beef from May to October and this contributed to an increase in consumption of beef from all origins.
Korean consumers are still concerned about the safety of U.S. beef. The chart of U.S. beef retail sales shows that with each finding of backbone, sales dropped. According to a recent survey, 85.5 percent of consumers stated that they worry about the safety of U.S. beef.
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), Korean consumers purchased beef 1.59 times per month in 2007 (up from 1.53 times per month in 2006) and spent an average of 36,100 Korean won per purchase (up from 27,980 Korean won in 2006). Consumers seem to be willing to spend more to purchase beef than they are to purchase pork or poultry. In addition, MAF is providing support to livestock producers to develop brands that provide consumers with more information about the meat they are buying. The awareness of brands is growing. In 2007, 34.5 percent of consumers said they were aware of beef brands, a marginal increase from 34.4 percent in 2006. In a recent survey, over half stated that they were willing to pay an additional 5-10 percent more for a branded meat product.
Source: U.S. Meat Export Federation/Korea Very little beef is consumed in the form of processed meat in Korea and virtually all beef is purchased for direct cooking, either in the form of Korean barbeque, soup, and other Korean dishes. Only 600 tons of imported beef rounds from Australian and New Zealand are processed into beef jerky by a domestic company.
The most popular cuts of beef are bone-in short ribs, loins and chuck rolls. Short ribs are consumed mainly for Korean barbeque or kalbi. Loins are also used for Korean barbeque while chuck roll is used for making bulgoki, shaboo shaboo and steak. As Koreans like to barbeque their beef, well marbled beef receives higher prices over lean meat. Also, as consumers are accustomed to grainfed beef, they prefer such beef over grass-fed. Thus, Australia which used to supply grass-fed beef is now switching to grain-fed beef. Grass-fed beef is often marinated in order to cover the grass flavor that Koreans do not like. There is also a preference for fresh chilled beef rather than frozen beef. During the period when U.S. beef was banned, not only did the total amount of short rib imports drop, but Australian clod replaced chuck rolls for bulgoki.
Source: U.S. Meat Export Federation/Korea Trade Total imports of beef and beef products in 2008 are forecast at 310,000 metric tons (carcass weight equivalent). Since a commercially viable protocol for U.S. beef currently does not exist, this report makes no projection regarding imports of U.S. beef. Therefore, imports of beef from current sources are projected to remain stable from last year. The current 2008 forecast is down from the previous 2008 forecast when it was expected that a small amount of U.S. boneless beef would be imported.
The total beef import market has never really returned to the level prior to the ban on U.S. beef at the end of December 2003. Despite aggressive marketing of grain fed beef by Australia, total beef imports are still far below the 2003 level.
U.S. Beef Imports Before the BSE ban was imposed at the end of 2003, beef was the top U.S. agricultural export to Korea and Korea was the third largest beef market for the United States. A beef protocol for deboned skeletal muscle meat was established in January 2006 and after an audit of all 36 plants eligible to export by the Korean quarantine authorities, the market was theoretically opened in September 2006. After three successive shipments, each one rejected due to bone fragment findings; Korea published slightly less onerous inspection procedures in March 2007. The new procedures indicated that all shipments would be subject to 100% inspections with x-ray machines, but that the rejections will only be limited to the box and not the entire shipment. These new inspection procedures enticed U.S. exporters to begin shipping boneless U.S. beef. On August 1, a vertebral column finding, a bone that Korea considered specified risk material (SRM) resulted in a quarantine inspection suspension for one month. This suspension was lifted on August 24; however, it was reinstated on October 5 when another vertebral column was found. This latest suspension is anticipated to remain until a bone-in protocol is negotiated. There is about 5,000 tons of beef that is in the bonded area; this beef has arrived, but has not been inspected.
Beef Tariffs and the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement The Korea-U.S. free trade agreement was concluded on April 1, 2007; however, neither the Korean National Assembly nor the U.S. Congress has ratified the agreement. Although the continued quarantine inspection suspension limits the ability of the United States to ratify this agreement, it does have some significant benefits for U.S. red meat exporters.
Korean tariffs on imports of beef muscle meats will decline to zero from the current 40 percent tariff in 15 equal annual reductions. A trade level similar to Korea's average imports from 2001 to 2003 of 182,800 metric tons of U.S. muscle meats valued at $569 million; implementation of the Korea-U.S. free trade agreement translates into a tariff savings of $15 million in year one of the agreement. Once tariffs are completely phased out, the annual tariff savings will be an estimated $1,300 per ton.
The agreement does includes a quantity safeguard of 270,000 tons for beef muscle meats, growing at a compound 2-percent annual rate to a final safeguard level of 354,000 tons in 15 years. In year 16 and beyond, safeguards will no longer apply. In 2003, the United States exported a record 224,000 metric tons of beef to Korea. This amount is still far below the trigger level in year one.
Korean tariffs on beef offal also decline in 15 equal annual reductions from their current 18- or 17-percent levels.
Release No. 0545.09 Contact: Carol Guthrie (USTR) 202-395-3230 Chris Mather (USDA) 202-720-4631
Joint Statement from USTR and USDA Spokeswomen Regarding Expanded Market Access for U.S. beef in Taiwan
Washington, Nov. 2, 2009 - The Office of the United States Trade Representative and the U.S. Department of Agriculture today released a brief statement regarding Taiwan's announcement on the import of American beef. The following statement is from Carol Guthrie, Assistant United States Trade Representative for Public Affairs, and Chris Mather, USDA Director of Communications:
"After over two years of extensive negotiations and scientific and technical exchanges, the United States has been looking forward to an announcement from Taiwan authorities that Taiwan would fully open its market to American beef and beef products on the basis of the bilateral protocol we have negotiated. The Protocol that Taiwan promulgated today is science-based and follows the guidelines of World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) as well as the findings of Taiwan's own risk assessment on the safety of U.S. beef. We understand today that Taiwan also announced a number of other additional domestic measures regarding beef and beef products. We are currently reviewing these measures to ensure they allow Taiwan consumers the opportunity to enjoy the same safe American beef and beef products that American families eat. We look forward to working with our partners in Taiwan to ensure that Taiwan's domestic requirements are consistent with the Protocol, the science, the OIE guidelines, and Taiwan's international obligations."
USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer and lender. To file a complaint of discrimination, write: USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call (800) 795-3272(voice), or (202) 720-6382 (TDD).
# USDA News email@example.com 202 720-4623
NOW, let's look at some _facts_. they seem to get over looked some times, and from time to time, we should look at _all_ the facts. ...TSS
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY On December 12, 2005, after nearly two years of banning the export of beef from the United States, Japan resumed beef trade with the United States. On January 20, 2006, Japan government officials discovered 3 boxes of veal with vertebral column shipped from the United States. Vertebral column is not allowed under the specific trade agreement with Japan. The United States acknowledges this was unacceptable because it did not meet the terms of our agreement with Japan, but emphasized that the product did not present a health risk to the public.
Box 3.1 Key events in recent U.S.-Korea Beef Trade • Prior to Korea's ban on imports of U.S. beef following the discovery BSE in a Canadian-born cow in the state of Washington in late 2003, Korea imported an average of 5,670 tons of U.S. beef—primarily “short ribs”— per month. Product primarily consisted of “short ribs.” • In September 2006, Korea allowed U.S. shipments of boneless beef to resume, albeit with a “zero” tolerance policy for bone chips or other material considered “at risk.” In addition, Korea will not accept beef from animals over 30 months of age, which is a more stringent approach than international standards of the World Organization for Animal Health (also known as the OIE). • In late May 2007, OIE classified the United States as a “Controlled Risk” region for BSE. Controlled Risk is the second highest safety rating. • Korea rejected the first three shipments of U.S. beef after reopening its market in September 2006 upon finding bone fragments in several boxes. Typically beef is shipped in prepackaged boxes. U.S. beef is mechanically deboned, which invariably results in small bone fragments, although this is considered commercially acceptable in the industry. The entire shipment, instead of the individual boxes, was rejected. • In June 2007, several boxes of ribs were found in a shipment to Korea resulting in a “stoppage” of U.S. shipments. After a USDA investigation it was determined that the shipment was safe and was meant for U.S. domestic sale and mistakenly sent to Korea. Korea is presently accepting U.S. boneless beef and has indicated that it will only return individual boxes instead of entire shipments. • Negotiations are currently ongoing. Sources: World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Official Animal Health Status, “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy”; Industry officials, e-mail and telephone correspondence with Commission staff, Washington, DC, June 2007; Johnston, Tom. “South Korea Reopens to U.S. Beef Imports,” June 8, 2007; and USDA, FAS, “Korea Lifts Suspension of Six U.S. Meat Plants,” June 25, 2007.
2006/12/01 11:45 KST
Seoul again rejects U.S. beef on bone chip discovery
SEOUL, Dec. 1 (Yonhap) -- South Korea said Friday it has rejected a shipment of three tons of U.S. beef because bone chips were found in the meat, the second case in just three weeks.
On Nov. 24, South Korea, the third-largest buyer of U.S. beef in 2003, rejected the first shipment of the meat to arrive here since lifting a three-year ban imposed out of fear of mad cow disease in September this year, saying it found bone fragments, which violated an agreement.
"The bones do not seem to be specified risk material, but it violates the agreement with the United States to ship only boneless beef," the National Veterinary Research & Quarantine Service said in a statement.
Under the agreement, U.S. beef suppliers to South Korea are required to ensure that bones, spinal cord and brains are removed from the meat. Also, the beef must come from cattle no older than 30 months.
Seoul imposed bans on U.S. beef after an animal with mad cow disease was found in the state of Washington in December 2003.
South Korea had been under pressure from the U.S. to resume beef imports amid negotiations for a free trade agreement with the U.S.
The two countries are aiming to conclude the talks by the first quarter of next year so President George W. Bush can approve it before his trade authority expires in July 2007.
A beef trade dispute may be one of the major hurdles in the upcoming talks to be held in Montana next week, watchers said.
Mad cow disease is a brain-wasting livestock illness. Hunans eating contaminated meat from infected animals can contract a fatal form of the disease.
specified risk material (SRM), would carry infectivity. For bovine animals the SRM are the skull including the brain, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, tonsils, thymus, spleen, and the spinal cord of animals over 12 months of age; the vertebral column (including dorsal root ganglia) of animals over 12 months of age, and the intestines (from duodenum to rectum) of animals of any age. The absence of an age limit for intestines resulted from experimental data demonstrating BSE infectivity in the distal ileum of animals very early after challenge with the BSE agent. The current list of SRM for the European Union is detailed in Appendix 3.
Another Bone Fragments Found in US Beef
By Kim Yon-se Staff Reporter The government said it found seven bone fragments in the third batch of beef shipment from the United States.
It is the third time that South Korea has found bone pieces since September when it decided to resume the import of American beef.
``The meat is from cattle slaughtered in Nebraska and processed in Iowa,¡¯¡¯ said Kang Mun-il, director general of the National Veterinary Research & Quarantine Service (NVRQS).
The quarantine service said that the fragments were found in the 10.2 tons of chuck short ribs from U.S. cattle. The NVRQS inspected only 5 percent, or 10 of the 651 boxes that arrived in Korea on Dec. 1.
Bone inclusion in shipments is a violation of import conditions between the two countries. The beef will be sent back to the U.S. or destroyed, the quarantine service said.
South Korea had refused U.S. beef due to its concern over a case of mad cow disease reported in the U.S. in 2003.
The government had said it would return or destroy the two previous shipments on Nov. 24. and Dec. 1 as a bone fragment and three fragments were found in the beef from Kansas and Nebraska, respectively.
``I heard that the U.S. also conducted an X-ray test _ on the third batch _ before shipment,¡¯¡¯ Kang said. ``The possibility that the U.S. failed to detect the bone fragments is high because they were so thin.¡¯¡¯
He rejected some reports that U.S. beef with bone fragments have already been consumed by some U.S. soldiers here and Koreans. He said, ``I think the reports are groundless as the beef should be destroyed or sent back.¡¯¡¯
Note: Values may not sum to totals shown because of rounding. Includes HS 2304. The value of U.S. exports of animal feed preparations46 (mixed feeds) to Korea has increased 51 percent over the 2002 to 2006 period.47 The United States has been a leading supplier to Korea from 2002 to 2006 (table 3.5), and the immediate removal of Korean tariffs (4.2 or 5 percent) as a result of implementation of the FTA would likely improve the U.S. competitiveness against China and other leading exporters. The United States is the leading supplier of pet food48 exports to Korea, with a market share of more than 50 percent (table 3.6); Korea is the eighth-largest U.S. export market for pet foods.49 Korea’s pet food consumption is expected to increase over the next several years as the trend toward pet ownership becomes increasingly popular as disposable incomes continue to rise and multiple pet households become more common.50 The immediate removal of the 5 percent tariff on pet food under the FTA would likely allow the United States to increase its already dominant market share against leading competitors.
Korea, however, has SPS and technical barriers to trade (TBT) measures that have constrained U.S. pet food exports. Interpretation and implementation of the FTA’s TBT chapter and the actions of the standing committee established by the FTA’s SPS chapter would likely be important to fully realize these gains in market access.51 As a result of the U.S. outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2003, Korea has banned U.S. exports of pet foods containing beef or other ruminant products. Additionally, Korea requires that U.S. exports of pet food containing animal proteins, including fish meal, need to be certified that they are entirely of U.S. origin. Consequently, animal proteins from other countries, which could be lower-cost, are prohibited in pet foods. In addition, pet food importers are required to provide a full ingredient list with percentages of each ingredient by weight for registration at provincial government offices. The absence of Korean safeguards to prevent disclosure of this proprietary information has disrupted U.S. exports of pet food to Korea.52 U.S. exports of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to Korea were negligible until 2004, but have risen sharply since then (table 3.7). A large proportion of DDGS are 53 Shurson, “Benefits and Limitations of Using DDGS in Swine Diets,” January 25, 2007. 54 ATAC for Grains, Feed, and Oilseeds, Advisory Committee Report, April 25, 2007, 6. 55 Ibid. 56 American Soybean Assoc., “American Soybean Association Applauds Korean Trade Agreement (April 3, 2007).” 57 National Oilseed Processors Assoc., “NOPA Strongly Supports Korea Free Trade Agreement (April 4, 2007).” 3-12 consumed domestically by the U.S. livestock industry, but its domestic use is presently constrained in animal rations because of nutritional limitations such as digestibility, protein quality, and energy values.53 As a result, the exportable surplus of DDGS has increased with the expansion of the U.S. ethanol industry, and the United States is now the leading exporter of DDGS to Korea with a market share of over 60 percent in 2006. The immediate removal of the 5 percent tariff on DDGS as a result of implementation of the FTA would further increase the competitiveness of the United States against China, the other primary supplier. This improved access would be expected to result in DDGS having a greater inclusion in feed rations in future years as Korea’s feed manufactures seek to diversify sources.54
----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Sent: Wednesday, November 04, 2009 2:32 PM
[BSE-L] re-FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009 and Recall # V-256-2009
Friday, September 4, 2009
FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009
Saturday, August 29, 2009
FOIA REQUEST FEED RECALL 2009 Product may have contained prohibited materials Bulk Whole Barley, Recall # V-256-2009
2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006
GREETINGS HONORABLE PEOPLE OF TAIWAN,
I wish to send you the following data on USA mad cow disease and cjd.
I am not anti-meat. I am anti-stupid, and stupid is as stupid does.
WHO WILL WATCH THE CHILDREN for CJD over the next 5 decades ?
FOR 4 years, the USDA fed dead stock downer cows, the most high risk cattle for mad cow disease and other dangerous pathogens to children all across the USA via the USDA certified dead stock downer cow school lunch program...
SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM FROM DOWNER CATTLE UPDATE
BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (typical and atypical strains)
Monday, October 19, 2009
Atypical BSE, BSE, and other human and animal TSE in North America Update October 19, 2009
Sunday, September 6, 2009
MAD COW USA 1997 SECRET VIDEO SEE VIDEO
U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ? SEE VIDEO at bottom
DAMNING TESTIMONY FROM STANLEY PRUSINER THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER ON PRIONS SPEAKING ABOUT ANN VENEMAN SEE VIDEO
CVM Annual Report Fiscal Year 2008: October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008
PUTTING LIPSTICK ON A PIG AND TAKING HER TO A DANCE...TSS
BSE Feed Rule Enforcement: A Decade of Success OFF TO A FAST START
2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006
Sent: Tuesday, November 03, 2009 5:14 PM
Subject: Re: FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT Bulk Whole Barley, Recall # V-256-2009 DISTRIBUTION TX END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 26, 2009
10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007
Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II
Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007
Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007
Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.
Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007
The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.
Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete.
Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
ID and NV
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007
Thursday, March 19, 2009
MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF POUNDS OF MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE USA WITH ONGOING 12 YEARS OF DENIAL
Sunday, October 18, 2009
Wisconsin Firm Recalls Beef Tongues That Contain Prohibited Materials SRM WASHINGTON, October 17, 2009
Thursday, October 15, 2009
Nebraska Firm Recalls Beef Tongues That Contain Prohibited Materials SRM WASHINGTON, Oct 15, 2009
Tuesday, July 14, 2009
U.S. Emergency Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Response Plan Summary and BSE Red Book Date: February 14, 2000 at 8:56 am PST
WHERE did we go wrong $$$
Sunday, December 28, 2008
MAD COW DISEASE USA DECEMBER 28, 2008 an 8 year review of a failed and flawed policy
Monday, May 11, 2009
Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health
SCRAPIE (typical and atypical strains)
Tuesday, November 10, 2009
A retrospective immunohistochemical study reveals atypical scrapie has existed in the United Kingdom since at least 1987
Brief Research Reports
NOR-98 ATYPICAL SCRAPIE 5 cases documented in USA in 5 different states USA 2007
Tuesday, June 3, 2008 SCRAPIE USA UPDATE JUNE 2008 NOR-98 REPORTED PA
Monday, September 1, 2008
RE-FOIA OF DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [No. 00-072-1] September 1, 2008
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD (typical and atypical strains)
DOI: 10.3201/eid1509.090253 Suggested citation for this article: Race B, Meade-White KD, Miller MW, Barbian KD, Rubenstein R, LaFauci G, et al.
Susceptibilities of nonhuman primates to chronic wasting disease.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Sep; [Epub ahead of print] Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease Brent Race,1 Kimberly D. Meade-White,1 Michael W. Miller, Kent D. Barbian, Richard Rubenstein, Giuseppe LaFauci, Larisa Cervenakova, Cynthia Favara, Donald Gardner, Dan Long, Michael Parnell, James Striebel, Suzette A. Priola, Anne Ward, Elizabeth S. Williams,2 Richard Race,3 and Bruce Chesebro3 Author affiliations: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana, USA (B. Race, K.D. Meade-White, K.D. Barbian, C. Favara, D. Gardner, D. Long, M. Parnell, J. Striebel, S.A. Priola, A. Ward, R. Race, B. Chesebro); Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (M.W. Miller); State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA (R. Rubenstein); New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, New York, USA (G. LaFauci); American Red Cross, Rockville, Maryland, USA (L. Cervenakova); and University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA (E.S. Williams) 1These authors contributed equally to this article. 2Deceased. 3Co-senior authors.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, that affects deer, elk, and moose. Human susceptibility to CWD remains unproven despite likely exposure to CWD-infected cervids. We used 2 nonhuman primate species, cynomolgus macaques and squirrel monkeys, as human models for CWD susceptibility. CWD was inoculated into these 2 species by intracerebral and oral routes. After intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys, 7 of 8 CWD isolates induced a clinical wasting syndrome within 33–53 months. The monkeys’ brains showed spongiform encephalopathy and protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) diagnostic of prion disease. After oral exposure, 2 squirrel monkeys had PrPres in brain, spleen, and lymph nodes at 69 months postinfection. In contrast, cynomolgus macaques have not shown evidence of clinical disease as of 70 months postinfection. Thus, these 2 species differed in susceptibility to CWD. Because humans are evolutionarily closer to macaques than to squirrel monkeys, they may also be resistant to CWD.
Page 1 of 21
Oral Infection of Squirrel Monkeys
To test a more natural route of infection, we exposed squirrel monkeys orally to CWD. Of the 15 exposed squirrel monkeys, 1 (no. 345) was found dead in its cage at 69 mpi; it had shown no neurologic signs or weakness. Western blot results indicated PrPres in brain, spleen, and lymph nodes (Figure 2, panel D). The level of PrPres in the brain of monkey 345 was comparable with that in end-stage intracerebrally inoculated monkeys; body weight at necropsy indicated a 33% decrease over the final 10 months. The high levels of PrPres and the severe wasting indicate that CWD infection could have been the cause of death. A second monkey, 303, was euthanized at 69 mpi because of suspicion of TSE after 2 weeks of progressive weakness, wasting, and eventual anorexia. PrPres analysis confirmed PrPres in brain (Figure 2, panel D), spleen, and lymph nodes. For monkeys 303 and 345, levels of PrPres in the lymph nodes and spleens were 10–100-fold lower than those in brain.
Two other orally infected monkeys were euthanized during the first 69 mpi (Table 2). Monkey 301 was euthanized at 39 mpi, after rapid onset of lethargy and anorexia that led to severe dehydration. Results of Western blot analysis for PrPres were negative in brain (Figure 1, panel B), spleen, lymph nodes, heart, skeletal muscle, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, salivary gland, kidney, lung, and tonsil. However, immunohistochemical analysis detected PrPres in the
Page 7 of 21
spleen and 1 mesenteric lymph node from this monkey, indicating a low level of infection (Figure 3, panels J,K). Monkey 614 was euthanized at 44 mpi because it did not recover from anesthesia related to routine tuberculosis screening. Neither Western blot nor immunohistochemical analysis detected PrPres in brain, spleen, or lymph nodes of this monkey.
Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques
We inoculated cynomolgus macaques both orally and intracerebrally with 3 CWD inocula representing elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer (Table 3). Of the cynomolgus macaques, 1 (no. 609) was euthanized at 48 mpi after it became aggressive. Brain (Figure 2, panel B), spinal cord, spleen, and lymph nodes were negative for PrPres by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. All remaining CWD-inoculated cynomolgus monkeys are currently (at 70 mpi) neurologically asymptomatic and have stable or increased body weights.
Amino acid substitutions in PrP can alter susceptibility to TSE agents, including CWD (18,29,30). To determine whether the lack of susceptibility in several intracerebrally inoculated squirrel monkeys (Table 1) was caused by PrP gene polymorphisms, we sequenced the PrP genes from 23 squirrel monkeys. When compared with published squirrel monkey sequences (28,31), variation was seen at residue 164, in the number of octapeptide repeats, and at residue 19 of the signal peptide (Table 4). However, these genetic differences in PrP did not appear to account for the lack of susceptibility of monkey 310, which was infected with CWD genotype A, because this genotype was also found in 5 of the CWD-positive monkeys. Because we were not able to sequence PrP of monkey 628, we could not assess the role of PrP variation in the lack of disease.
Infectivity of CWD-infected Squirrel Monkey Tissues in PrP Transgenic Mice
To determine whether passage of CWD in squirrel monkeys altered the tropism of the infectious agent, we inoculated tgDeerPrP mice and tg mice expressing human PrP (lines 66 and RM) intracerebrally with tissue homogenates from 3 CWD-positive squirrel monkeys (nos. 322, 308, and 301) with PrPres and from an intracerebrally inoculated cynomolgus macaque (no. 609). Clinical disease did not develop in any tgDeerPrP mice during 600–700 days (Table 5). The lack of transmission to tgDeerPrP mice from the 3 squirrel monkeys with detectable CWD PrPres indicated that either the infectivity levels were low in these squirrel monkeys or that the original cervid species tropism was altered by the passage in squirrel monkeys. Similarly, the
Page 8 of 21
lack of transmission to tg mice expressing human PrP implied that passage through squirrel monkeys did not facilitate adaptation to an agent with increased tropism for humans.
As new CWD foci continue to emerge among cervid populations, the risk for CWD transmission to humans needs to be assessed. We used 2 monkey species and 2 routes of inoculation to test the susceptibility of primates to 8 different pools of CWD. To date, we have verified CWD in 11 of 13 intracerebrally inoculated squirrel monkeys; average incubation period was 41 months (range 33–53 months). Using a single CWD pool, Marsh et al. noted infection in 2 of 2 squirrel monkeys 31–34 months after intracerebral inoculation (13). Intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys with other TSE agents, including kuru, variant CJD, sporadic CJD, and sheep scrapie, had incubation periods of ˜24 months and attack rates of ˜100% (14,15,32). The extended incubation periods and lower attack rates for our squirrel monkeys may result from a partial species barrier to CWD.
The signs of wasting syndrome in CWD-infected monkeys were similar to those of CWD infection in cervids, in which loss of body condition is nearly always a major component of infection and neurologic deficits vary (2). The correlation of clinical signs between CWD in cervids and squirrel monkeys suggests that CWD might affect a common brain region in each species. We observed PrPres deposition in squirrel monkeys primarily in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, claustrum, putamen, and thalamus. Cervids typically have the most abundant and predictable PrPres in the dorsal motor vagus nucleus (obex), olfactory cortex, and diencephalon (including thalamus, hypothalamus, metathalamus, and epithalamus) (2,33). A plausible hypothesis could be that disruption of regions within the hypothalamus and thalamus leads to a metabolic imbalance, resulting in a severe wasting syndrome. We did not observe a strong correlation between infectivity titer inoculated and attack incidence or incubation period (Table 1). One potential explanation is that the variation in speed of disease progression might not be relevant given the low number of animals in each group. A second possibility is that our squirrel monkeys varied at PrP alleles that may affect CWD susceptibility. However, analysis of 23 squirrel monkeys showed no PrP sequence differences
Page 9 of 21
correlating with susceptibility to CWD (Tables 1, 2, 4). A third possibility is that genes other than the gene for PrP might influence CWD susceptibility.
For humans, eating infected or contaminated tissue is a likely route of CWD exposure. In other animal models, oral transmission of TSE is generally 1,000-fold less effective than direct intracerebral challenge and results in longer incubation periods and lower efficiency of disease transmission. In our oral transmission experiments, we found evidence of CWD infection in 3 monkeys at >52 mpi; 2 at 69 mpi had abundant PrPres in brain and lower levels in spleen and lymph nodes, and 1 euthanized at 39 mpi had PrPres in lymphatic tissues only. Thus, transmission seems to be slower by the oral route than by the intracerebral route, and other orally infected monkeys may be affected in the future.
Cynomolgus macaques are evolutionarily closer to humans than are squirrel monkeys (17). At nearly 6 years postinoculation, no macaques have shown clinical signs of CWD. Intracerebral inoculation of cynomolgus macaques with BSE causes disease in 3 years; human variant CJD requires 2–3 years, and human sporadic CJD requires 5 years (16,34). However, oral inoculation of cynomolgus macaques with BSE agent required a minimum of 5 years before clinical disease was observed (35). Therefore, we cannot rule out CWD transmission to cynomolgus macaques.
The PrP gene sequence can influence cross-species transmission of prion disease. Therefore, we compared squirrel monkey and cynomolgus macaque PrP gene sequences to look for differences that might account for different susceptibilities of these monkeys to CWD. In the PrP gene excluding the signal peptide, deer differed from squirrel monkeys at 17 residues and from cynomolgus macaques at 16 residues, but 14 of these differing residues were identical in squirrel monkeys and macaques (Figure 4). Therefore, there are only 2 residues in cynomolgus macaques (100 and 108) and 3 residues in squirrel monkeys (56, 159 and 182) at which these monkeys differ from deer and also from each other. These residues might play a role in susceptibility differences seen in our study. Human exposure to CWD-infected cervids in past decades is likely. The highest levels of prion infectivity are present in the central nervous system and lymphatic tissues of CWD-infected cervids; contamination of knives, saws, and muscles with these tissues can easy occur when processing game. Despite the likelihood of exposures, epidemiologic studies of humans
Page 10 of 21
living in CWD-endemic areas of Colorado and Wyoming during 1979–2001 have not shown any increases in human TSE cases (36,37). Ongoing studies by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environmental Human Prion Disease Surveillance Program, in conjunction with the University of Colorado School of Medicine, have also concluded that no convincing cases of CWD transmission to humans have been detected in Colorado (38). However, if CWD in humans appears like a wasting syndrome similar to that observed in the squirrel monkeys in our study, affected persons might receive a diagnosis of a metabolic disorder and never be tested for TSE. Fortunately, additional laboratory data are consistent with the epidemiologic data, and these results support the conclusion that a species barrier protects humans from CWD infection (11–13,20,36,37).
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Experimental oral transmission of CWD to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant protein
Thursday, September 24, 2009
Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer
Saturday, May 16, 2009
Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program Document ID APHIS-2006-0118-0096 APHIS-2006-0118-0096
Sunday, April 12, 2009
CWD UPDATE Infection Studies in Two Species of Non-Human Primates and one Environmental reservoir infectivity study and evidence of two strains
ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD
TO ASSUME that CWD transmission to humans will only look like nvCJD, and not sporadic CJD or any of it's sub-types, is incorrect, not scientific. ...TSS
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
full text ;
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
From: "Belay, Ermias"
To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Dear Sir/Madam, In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.
That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
-----Original Message----- From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM To: [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask] Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
snip...see full text ;
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
Saturday, December 01, 2007
Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model
Volume 13, Number 12–December 2007 Research
TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME)
FELINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (FSE)
(please note, the only reason FSE is not detected in the USA, is the lack of surveillance i.e. don't look, don't find. ...TSS)
CANINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (CSE) ???
(please note again, the only reason a TSE has not been _confirmed_ in a dog, i.e. don't look, don't find)
AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.
2005 DEFRA Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
Area 307, London, SW1P 4PQ Telephone: 0207 904 6000 Direct line: 0207 904 6287 E-mail: h.mcdonagh.defra.gsi.gov.uk
Mr T S Singeltary P.O. Box 42 Bacliff Texas USA 77518
21 November 2001
Dear Mr Singeltary
TSE IN HOUNDS
Thank you for e-mail regarding the hounds survey. I am sorry for the long delay in responding.
As you note, the hound survey remains unpublished. However the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC), the UK Government’s independent Advisory Committee on all aspects related to BSE-like disease, gave the hound study detailed consideration at their meeting in January 1994. As a summary of this meeting published in the BSE inquiry noted, the Committee were clearly concerned about the work that had been carried out, concluding that there had clearly been problems with it, particularly the control on the histology, and that it was more or less inconclusive. However was agreed that there should be a re-evaluation of the pathological material in the study.
Later, at their meeting in June 95, The Committee re-evaluated the hound study to see if any useful results could be gained from it. The Chairman concluded that there were varying opinions within the Committee on further work. It did not suggest any further transmission studies and thought that the lack of clinical data was a major weakness.
Overall, it is clear that SEAC had major concerns about the survey as conducted. As a result it is likely that the authors felt that it would not stand up to r~eer review and hence it was never published. As noted above, and in the detailed minutes of the SEAC meeting in June 95, SEAC considered whether additional work should be performed to examine dogs for evidence of TSE infection. Although the Committee had mixed views about the merits of conducting further work, the Chairman noted that when the Southwood Committee made their recommendation to complete an assessment of possible spongiform disease in dogs, no TSEs had been identified in other species and hence dogs were perceived as a high risk population and worthy of study. However subsequent to the original recommendation, made in 1990, a number of other species had been identified with TSE ( e.g. cats) so a study in hounds was less
critical. For more details see-
As this study remains unpublished, my understanding is that the ownership of the data essentially remains with the original researchers. Thus unfortunately, I am unable to help with your request to supply information on the hound survey directly. My only suggestion is that you contact one of the researchers originally involved in the project, such as Gerald Wells. He can be contacted at the following address.
Dr Gerald Wells, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT 15 3NB, UK
You may also wish to be aware that since November 1994 all suspected cases of spongiform encephalopathy in animals and poultry were made notifiable. Hence since that date there has been a requirement for vets to report any suspect SE in dogs for further investigation. To date there has never been positive identification of a TSE in a dog.
I hope this is helpful
Yours sincerely 4
HUGH MCDONAGH BSE CORRESPONDENCE SECTION
CONCEPT NOT FOR FURTHER STUDY OF MATERIAL OBTAINED IN A SURVEY OF HOUNDS FOR EVIDENCE OF A SCRAPIE-LIKE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (SE)
b) Fibrillar material closely similar to SAF, found in BSE/Scrapie, was observed in 19 (4.3%) cases, all of which were hounds > 7 years of age. 14/19 of these suspected SAF results correlated with cases in the unresolveable histopathological category.
The following proposals address the hypothesis that the hound survey observations represent a PrP related or scrapie-like disease of dogs in which the pathological response, and possible the spread of infectivity, is neuroanatomically localized. By inference this could also mean that the disorder is clinically silent and non-progressive.
PET FOODS MAD CATS AND MAD DOGS BSE/TSEs
worse still, there is serious risk the media could get to hear of such a meeting…
Crushed heads (which inevitably involve brain and spinal cord material) are used to a limited extent but will also form one of the constituent raw materials of meat and bone meal, which is used extensively in pet food manufacturer…
THIS DATA CAN BE LOCATED UNDER FSE URL AS WELL ;
PIGS AND TSE ?
Thursday, October 15, 2009
Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs
CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE AND OTHER HUMAN TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
Thursday, November 05, 2009
Incidence and spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease variants with mixed phenotype and co-occurrence of PrPSc types: an updated classification
Friday, October 23, 2009
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Texas Data for Reporting Years 2000-2008
BSE (Mad Cow) Update: Do Reports of sCJD Clusters Matter?
snip... see full text ;
JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY
MARCH 26, 2003
Send Post-Publication Peer Review to journal:
Re: RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease in the United States
Email Terry S. Singeltary:
I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al  have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?
LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL
Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003
Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America
My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.
49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.
Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.
Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.
To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.
Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD. Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.
Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the
UK and Europe regarding BSE.
Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it and only what they want you to have.Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that current surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings; adding that, the cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion disease cases we will not know for sure. The USA should develop a system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.
Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently reported the cases of three hunterstwo of whom were friendswho died from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that at present there are insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans; adding that [only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the plausibility of transmission further. Samii argues that by making both doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients will know to ask whether they ate venison. CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC will not be investigating the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate CWD-infected meat. He notes that although the likelihood of CWD jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100% and that [we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans & the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very limited.
he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733).
I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.<<< href="http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=singeltary&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT">http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=singeltary&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT
2 January 2000
British Medical Journal
U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well
15 November 1999
British Medical Journal
vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.
THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN
BY Philip Yam
Yam Philip Yam News Editor Scientific American http://www.sciam.com/
SEE REVISITING SPORADIC CJD BY PHILIP YAM THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN
Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. undercounts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population. ...
Sunday, August 10, 2008
A New Prionopathy OR more of the same old BSe and sporadic CJD
The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.
Friday, November 30, 2007
CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA CWRU AND CJD FOUNDATION
IT ALL STARTED, LEGALLY, RIGHT HERE, the legal trading of ALL TSE's, globally $$$
Docket APHIS-2006-0026 Docket Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Animal Identification and Importation of Commodities Docket Type Rulemaking Document APHIS-2006-0026-0001 Document Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions, Identification of Ruminants and Processing and Importation of Commodities Public Submission APHIS-2006-0026-0012 Public Submission Title Comment from Terry S Singletary
Docket APHIS-2006-0041 Docket Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived from Bovines Commodities Docket Type Rulemaking Document APHIS-2006-0041-0001 Document Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived From Bovines Public Submission APHIS-2006-0041-0028 Public Submission Title Comment from Terry S Singletary
Comment 2006-2007 USA AND OIE POISONING GLOBE WITH BSE MRR POLICY
THE USA is in a most unique situation, one of unknown circumstances with human and animal TSE. THE USA has the most documented TSE in different species to date, with substrains growing in those species (BSE/BASE in cattle and CWD in deer and elk, there is evidence here with different strains), and we know that sheep scrapie has over 20 strains of the typical scrapie with atypical scrapie documented and also BSE is very likely to have passed to sheep. all of which have been rendered and fed back to animals for human and animal consumption, a frightening scenario. WE do not know the outcome, and to play with human life around the globe with the very likely TSE tainted products from the USA, in my opinion is like playing Russian roulette, of long duration, with potential long and enduring consequences, of which once done, cannot be undone. These are the facts as I have come to know through daily and extensive research of TSE over 9 years, since 12/14/97. I do not pretend to have all the answers, but i do know to continue to believe in the ukbsenvcjd only theory of transmission to humans of only this one strain from only this one TSE from only this one part of the globe, will only lead to further failures, and needless exposure to humans from all strains of TSE, and possibly many more needless deaths from TSE via a multitude of proven routes and sources via many studies with primates and rodents and other species.
MY personal belief, since you ask, is that not only the Canadian border, but the USA border, and the Mexican border should be sealed up tighter than a drum for exporting there TSE tainted products, until a validated, 100% sensitive test is available, and all animals for human and animal consumption are tested. all we are doing is the exact same thing the UK did with there mad cow poisoning when they exported it all over the globe, all the while knowing what they were doing. this BSE MRR policy is nothing more than a legal tool to do just exactly what the UK did, thanks to the OIE and GW, it's legal now. and they executed Saddam for poisoning ???
go figure. ...
Docket APHIS-2006-0041 Docket Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived from Bovines Commodities Docket Type Rulemaking Document APHIS-2006-0041-0001 Document Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived From Bovines Public Submission APHIS-2006-0041-0028.1 Public Submission Title Attachment to Singletary comment
January 28, 2007
I would kindly like to submit the following to ;
BSE; MRR; IMPORTATION OF LIVE BOVINES AND PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM BOVINES [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0041] RIN 0579-AC01
Monday, October 26, 2009
MAD COW DISEASE, AND U.S. BEEF TRADE
MAD COW DISEASE, CJD, TSE, SOUND SCIENCE, COMMERCE, AND SELLING YOUR SOUL TO THE DEVIL
NOW, consider all these animal TSEs, consider all these animals used in food for human and animals, consider all the exposed, then consider the 'pass if forward' modes of transmission, and an incubation period for up to 5 decades.
with kindest regards,
I am sincerely,
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518